Abstract: The Poetry of Rubén Darío Today. In this short paper I intend to review several opinions on the work and personality of the poet from Nicaragua, to highlight the relevance of his poetry within the context of modernist renewal, and finally to underline the relevance of the theme of death in his late poems.
Key words: Bellini – Darío – Modernismo.
Abstract: Modernity and Modernism in «España contemporánea» of Rubén Darío In the chronicles of España contemporánea of Rubén Darío the adjective ‘contemporary’ posed a question to the Spain of the time, an interpellation aimed at questioning the meaning of its place in the world. The question was on the so-called bourgeois modernity, that is the modernity of reason and progress against which the aesthetic modernity of the early 19th century reacted. For this reason, these chronicles represent a trial of the panorama of contemporary Spain with reference to the paradigms of modernity, which encourages the advancement of peoples, and that of modernism as a literary movement which should produce a literature commensurate with the modern or contemporary era. The struggle between old and new is here clearly visible, and the author’s proposal to promote a form of art which might correspond to the spirit of modernity – that is, modernism – stands out. Darío, in short, set out for his Argentinian readers an answer to the Spanish situation providing a panorama which might define its contemporaneity, so that it might be compared to other countries in Europe (France, and in particular Paris) and in the Americas (Buenos Aires) in order to prove whether such modernity was actually present.
Key words: Chronic Modernist – Rubén Dario – España contemporánea.
Abstract: A Poem of Circumstances by Rubén Darío: the «Epístola a la señora de Lugones». “Bacchianas brasileiras” and art of escape in the ‘Golden Island’. Poem of the travels and wanderings, the “Epístola a la señora de Lugones” is one of the major and significant texts of Rubén Dario, although it does not considered the most commented upon. Our reading will stress the conversational tonality of this portrait of the artist as homo viator, finding shelter in Majorca. The epistle blends information, narration, self-irony and lays emphasis on multilingualism as well as on abundant onomastics and toponymy. Speech, versification, rhythm contribute jointly to a lyricism of everyday life which expresses, in exemplary form, the frequent ideal of the ‘Golden Island’ in Rubén Dario’s works. This illusion is a ‘Mediterranean’ aspiration, not only in an ethical, cultural or poetic sense but also in the etymological sense of the word ‘Mediterranean’. That’s how the poetic voice presents the cosmopolitism of Majorca Island: the sea in the middle of lands, the land in the middle of seas, like his native Nicaragua (between the Pacific, the Lake Nicaragua and the Atlantic Ocean).
Key words: Travels – Majorca – Golden Island – Conversational – Mediterranean lyricism.
Abstract: Rubén Darío and Nineteenth Century French Literature. Rubén Darío’s work both in verse and in prose shows his early contact with and his profound knowledge of French literature. The presence of, admiration of and direct or indirect allusion to French authors, mainly those of the nineteenth century and particularly that of Victor Hugo and Paul Verlaine among many others, reveal the influence these have had on his poetic career and his aesthetic preferences, aspects that critics and scholars have emphasized and which we here call his Francophilia, in order to stress that this was the only way in which the poet could find his intellectual home, satisfy his aspirations and live his cosmopolitan life.
Key words: Rubén Darío – French literature – Nineteenth century – Francophilia.
Abstract: Ethics and Aesthetics. Jean-Marie Guyau and the Poetry of Rubén Darío. The aim of the essay is to provide a commentary on the most mature portion of Darío’s writings, namely the poetry collection Prosas profanas (1898) and the essays included in Los Raros (in the edition published in the same year), so as to point out the relations existing between the Nicaraguan author’s conception of creation and art and Jean-Marie Guyau’s philosophy. If Darío cited the XIX-century philosopher several times in his essays, the reflections on good and evil, virtue and vice permeating his poetry actually reveal a departure from the religious dogmatism and positivism characterizing Guyau’s texts, in particular Esquisse d’une morale sans obligation, ni sanction (1885) and L’Art au point de vue sociologique (1889).
Key-words: Rubén Darío – Jean-Marie Guyau – Ethics and Aesthetics – Modernism.
Abstract: Body, Gender and Language: Dance in two Texts of Rubén Darío. «Miss Isadora Duncan» and «Cléo de Mérode – Nuestra señora de la sonrisa y de la danza». Several of Ruben Darío’s works prove the poet’s interest for performing arts, often in their popular forms (such as circus or the pantomime), in which he exalts the moving body, with its multiple expressive possibilities. Considered from a poetic perspective, this allows for a dialogue between the ‘arts of silence’ (again pantomime or dance) and verbal arts. Darío dedicates two famous texts to two contemporary dancers, Cléo de Mérode and Isadora Duncan. Both texts illustrate the fecundity of this dialogue, by means of two essential mechanisms: on the one hand, an approximation to movement that goes from step to pose, that is, on the effect of ‘becoming a statue’ – a feature of the fetishism characterizing “Cléo de Mérode” and in much of Darío’s view of love as ecstasy; on the other hand, a reflection on native, archaic movement, which moves the bodies in “Isadora Duncan”, and that Darío relates to holistic models. While he first presupposes a poetics of re-presentation, of the poem as artifact in the second the poetic body is native, and participates in an enveloping word.
Keys words: Rubén Darío – Cléo de Mérodes – Isadora Duncan – Dance – Poetic.
Abstract: Rubén Darío. Geography, Painting and Landscapes. Rubén Darío always had an almost obsessive interest in painting. His travel writing often focuses on the visual perspective of an exhibition, on art galleries, on his early interest in art magazines where he could see the copies of paintings, painting which create a world by means of painting. Darío’s attention to landscapes is also remarkable (the description of landscapes through words) both in his journal articles and in his poetry. By means of an itinerary through Darío’s works dealing with his most relevant travels, above all those to Europe, I intend to prove his interest in arts and his ability to create literary landscapes connected to his attention to painting.
Keywords: Travel writing – Painting – Landscapes – Chronicles.
Abstract: «Yo soy el Anticristo de la América Central». Readings and Spiritual Crisis of Rubén Darío in 1913. On August 22nd, 1913, Diego Carbonell, a medical doctor from Venezuela, found Rubén Darío talking wildly, drinking heavily, and asserting he was the «Antichrist of Central America». If we look at the books he was reading earlier and which had pushed him to drink, we can see he was going through a spiritual crisis: he had lost faith in the progress of humanity and the meaning of history. His reference to the Antichrist suggests he identified with the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
Keywords: Rubén Darío – Readings – Spiritual Crisis – 1913.
Abstract: Rubén Darío. Poetry and Reflection in «Los motivos del lobo». With sublime material taken from one of the 53 legends of The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi, and a variety of literary references, nourished with real and symbolic significations, Dario crystallizes in “Los motivos del lobo” a new and original text, combining poetic intuition with reason to raise a reflection where man and beast are given, the human and the divine, good and evil, ancient and modern; nevertheless the text is considered as one of his most popular and accessible poems. If the synergy of formal elements and meaning, if l’art du langage captures the poetic message and its success to overcome this apparent contradiction, it is what we aim to make clear in this article.
Key words: Francis of Assisi – The wolf of Gubbio – Motive – Reflection.
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