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Abstract: «Azul… The Garden of the Words». Reading Azul… can be compared to a walk in a city park during which thepoet praises to his (or maybe her) reader the beauties of the place. This reading-stroll may start in one of the great boulevards of prose or poetry, taking a break in the most seducing areas and getting to know intriguing clearings. This garden of paper, as Baudelaire’s Les fleures du mal (1837), Whitman’s Leaves of Grass (1855) and Lee Master’s Spoon River Anthology, has a circular structure comparable to an enclosed space that gives unity to a work made of fragments, like a a bunch composed ofsingle inebriating flowers, blades of a lush grass or headstones of a countryside graveyard.
Key words: Azul… – Garden – Enclosure – Reader – Index.
Abstract: «Characteristics of a ‘Spectral’ Modernism in Virgilio Piñera’s and Julián del Casal’s Poetry». Based on the notion of «spectral modernism» proposed by the historian and critic Rafael Rojas, this article analyses, in a comparative and contrastive approach, some poems written by the Cuban authors Virgilio Piñera (1912-1979) and Julián del Casal (1863-1893). With that concept, the critic refers to the relation Piñera establishes with his predecessor, whose work is considered as the highest literary moment in the Cuban modernist aesthetics. The Rojas’ «spectral modernism» above all describes the hostility perceived by both authors towards the insular context, regarded as an oppressive reality. The essay aims to examine the literary topics through which is possible to verify an effective dialogue between Piñera poems and the modernist Casal’s works: above all I’ll take into account some features like the subjectivism proposed as a ‘damned and nostalgic being’ and the national consciousness expressed through different items in relation to the predominant modernist proposals. The conclusions underline important analogies between the two authors, but also confirm Piñera’s transgressor poetic action in relation to the previous Cuban literary tradition.
Key words: Virgilio Piñera – Julián del Casal – Modernism –Insularity – Coldness.
Riassunto: Questo articolo presenta la relazione tra l’estetica del modernismo letterario e la filosofia di Friedrich Nietzsche. La teoria filosofica del pensatore tedesco sull’arte e la sua reazione all’imperativo del positivismo si riflette in opere come Aurora o La gaia scienza. Questa scienza felice e sana si oppone alla tradizione filosofica idealista ed è alla base del pensiero creativo che sarà mostrato nel lavoro dei principali artisti del Modernismo, come Rubén Darío, in America, o Ramón María del Valle-Inclán, in Spagna.
Parole chiave: Modernismo – Filosofia – Nietzsche – Rubén Darío.
Abstract: «Urban Imagery in Nuevo Signo’s Poetry». The members of the literary group known as Nuevo Signo, born in Guatemala in 1968, have several elements in common: almost all of them belong to the same generation, almost all of them came from the country and they all share an interest in reflecting on the destiny and nature of the Guatemalan people. Despite their origin, from the inside of the Republic, they all arrived to Guatemala City, and in there, they created relations of friendship and intellectual exchange. In this city is where they reflect on the contradictions of the modernity of their country, on the dynamics between the center and the periphery, the urban areas and the rural villages, as well as on tradition and technological progress. In this paper I propose a reflection on the conception of urban modernity in the poetry of Nuevo Signo, its meaning in the social dynamics of Guatemala and its role in the political context of the Sixties and Seventies.
Key words: Nuevo Signo– 20th Century Guatemalan Poetry – Luis Alfredo Arango – Delia Quiñónez – Francisco Morales Santos – José Luis Villatoro – Julio Fausto Aguilera.
Riassunto: L’epoca della modernità che José Martí visse a New York, quella dei «ruines tiempos», dell’implosione di un ordine e del sorgere ancora enigmatico di un altro ordine, trova nel genere della ‘cronaca’ il laboratorio che permette al cubano di elaborare una strategia di interpretazione e di presentazione transculturale della modernità nordamericana ai destinatari del suo lavoro giornalistico. Il nesso tra una esperienza di vita marcata dalla violenza coloniale e dalla condizione di intellettuale esiliato che si confronta con i tratti violenti propri dell’esplosione della modernità capitalistica, e il genere della cronaca giornalistica, è uno dei fondamenti, da un lato, del profondo rinnovamento della prosa in lingua spagnola apportato da Martí e, dall’altro, dell’elaborazione del grande progetto culturale ed etico di una ‘modernità altra’ per la nuestra América. Attraverso l’analisi di alcune delle Escenas norteamericanas pubblicate su La Opinión Nacional di Caracas tra il 1881 e il 1882, si cercherà di rilevare la presenza di una ‘scrittura della violenza’ come motore della costante sperimentazione che caratterizza la prosa martiana, che si apre al pluristilismo e a nuove forme di montaggio ‘cinematografico’, arrivando a superare i confini tra prosa e poesia.
Parole chiave: José Martí – Escenas norteamericanas – Cronaca – Modernità – Violenza.
Riassunto: Questo articolo analizza la raccolta Cuentos frágiles, di Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, focalizzandosi sui riferimenti alla divinità individuati nei racconti che la compongono. Dopo aver esaminato il ruolo svolto nel testo dalle citazioni bibliche, si passa all’analisi della presenza (o assenza) nelle narrazioni di Dio come elemento tematico, con l’intento di evidenziare che l’evanescenza della figura divina nei Cuentos frágiles di Nájera riflette una profonda crisi religiosa ed esistenziale dell’autore.
Parole chiave: Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera – Cuentos frágiles – Dio – Citazioni bibliche – Modernismo e religione.
Abstract:«Civilisation and Barbarism in Gamaliel Churata’s Thought». This article analyses the oppositions between ‘civilisation’ and ‘barbarism’, and ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ in the Resurrección de los muertos of the peruvian writer Gamaliel Churata. The reflection on these dichotomics terms is central in the thought of author. This work demostrates how Churatarealises its overcoming, using different discoursive strategies in a dialogue with the Western tradition thought. The author discutes the frontier that defines the wilderness and the civilised, and the criteria that marks the civilisation itself, such as writing, progress, ‘race’ and patriarchy. Furthermore, it shows how Churata resemantises the figure of the cannibal and the concept of anthropophagy, rhetoric constructions of the colonial discourse used in the context of conquest and colonisation of America to delegitimise the indigenous ontologies. Through a discourse that embrace an aesthetical, ontological, and political level, Churata try to destructuring dominant/dominated hierarchies.
Key words: Civilisation – Barbarism – Churata – Resurrección de los muertos – Anthropophagy.
Abstract:«Darío and his Precursors. Los raros in a New Century: Borges, Bolaño and Vila-Matas». Los raros, published in 1896, collects the lives of artist that Rubén Darío had been publishing in La Nación of Buenos Aires; the book is constituted as something else interesting than an anthology. Reedited in 1905, may be seen like a brotherhood, a literary space where the author recognizes himself and wishes to be included in two moments of his career that combines aesthetic change and international projection. His inclusive gesture dialogues with the notion of precursor, the biography of artist and the criticism of canon at our last end of our century.
Key words: Los raros – Lifes of artist – Borges – Bolaño – Vila-Matas.
Abstract: «Modernism and Translation: an American Approach». In the complexity of the aesthetic-cultural modernization process that emerged during the last decades of XIX century in Latin America, translation occupies a relevant, but little researched space. However, Latin American literary Modernism shows the interest in translation, which isone of the main sources of assimilation and appropriation of European models. The aim of this work is to emphasize the contribution of the aesthetic-cultural Latin American modernist project to current translation through the cannibalistic theory of translation, developed in the 60s by the Brazilian poet, critic and translator Haroldo de Campos, resuming the anthropophagic metaphor presented in the Anthropophagic Manifest by Oswald de Andrade (1928).
Key words: Modernism and Translation – Transcreation – Cannibalistic theory of translation.
Abstract:«Alejandra Pizarnik between Modernity and Post-Modernisms». The idea of a ‘salvation tale’ is connected, in Pizarnik’s works, to the necessity of finding a prose that expresses her antidogmatic, antibourgeois and iconoclastic sexuality. During her last years Pizarnik wrote several erotic and humoristic dialogues full of postmodern linguistic and textual strategies such as inter and intratextuality, metafiction, pastiche and parody. This is the reason why her exuberant and chaotic polyphonic game of voices refers also to the latinamerican Neo-Baroque.
Key words: Pizarnik – Modernity – Postmodernism.
Abstract: «Against the Sphinx. The Oedipal Paradigm in the Hispanic American Modernity». Observing the socio-cultural incongruities that always characterize the manifestations of modernity in peripheral and postcolonial contexts, Hispanic-American Modernism provided a reading of the modern that had as an essential axis the confirmation of the distortion of the modernization processes in the subcontinent. Modernity was thus affirmed in the manner of an incomprehensible and enigmatic formulation. Hence the need to rescue and revive the traditional figures of the Sphinx and Oedipus, as symbolic concretions capable of expressing philosophically and aesthetically the conflictive forms of a problematic and deformed socio-cultural environment. According to these premises, the article aims to analyse the roles that the Oedipal imaginary plays in the modernist formulations of modernity, highlighting, in particular, the genealogical connections that it establishes between the peripheral cultures and the occidental’smodern conceptuality, prismatically complicating the cultural and identitary claims of a modernity that is still forced to think itself in the margins, but contradictorily using the conceptual tools of the centre.
Key words: Hispanic-American Modernism – Modernity – Coloniality – Peripheral – Imaginaries.
Riassunto: Nel 1967 Casa de las Américas convocò un incontro di intellettuali e poeti, che si svolse a Varadero tra il 16 e il 22 di gennaio per il centenario della nascita di Rubén Darío. L’incontro prevedeva il convergere di due modalità di interventi, strettamente collegati tra loro: una serie di analisi e proposte critiche dovevano collegarsi a una riunione di poeti latinoamericani, destinata a costruire una sorta di antología en vivo, che nello stesso tempo poteva essere considerata sia come una revisione critica della figura di Darío che come una mostra delle forze poetiche più incisive di un fondamentale decennio delle lettere latinoamericane. Da quell’incontro celebrativo nacquero i numeri monografici di due riviste culturali, legate dal fatto che uno dei partecipanti lavorava contemporaneamente in entrambe: il numero 42 di Casa de las Américas, intitolato Encuentro con Rubén Darío e il numero 2 di Carte Segrete, rivista dell’avanguardia intellettuale italiana, di cui era vicedirettore all’epoca Gianni Toti, uno dei più attivi e originali protagonisti delle relazioni culturali tra Italia e America Latina. Il contributo vuole mostrare come le due riviste ricostruirono quell’evento, quali posizioni si confrontarono in esso e il ruolo di Gianni Toti nell’incontro e nella sua diffusione.
Parole chiave: Rubén Darío – Gianni Toti – Casa de las Américas.
Abstract: «Rubén Darío’s Prints in Vicente Huidobro’s Poetic Consciousness. The Nightingale is Happy for Both Melodies». Rubén Darío already outlined the terms of his modernist poetics in 1888 (“Catulle Mendès. Parnasianos y decadentes”, insisted on his aesthetic creed in 1986 (“Los colores del estandarte”) and confirmed all this by writing his “Preface” to Cantos de vida y esperanza and compose his “Dilucidaciones” for El canto errante. This is how Darío, assuming guidance and rejecting ineffective exhibitionism, reveals aesthetic principles based on an expressive freedom of particular mood, always defending «íntimas ideas» and «caros ensueños». The poet thus fulfills a goldenrule: «be yourself». Vicente Huidobro recognizes the aesthetic principles of Rubén Darío, and the value of his literary counterpart, in 1912, by then asking himself questions: Why did the father of modern poetry suffer attacks and scorn, why did they take so long to understand it? The teaching of Rubén Darío is unquestionable; nor is it worth questioning the successes of the historical avant-garde, being Huidobro and his creationism, according Saúl Yurkievic, his true precursor in Hispano-America. The Huidobrian aesthetic, recognizes teachers, coins its present and announces future achievements, always pressing, with true freedom, love, poetry and analysis. Something of all that already sounds in Rubén Darío.
Key words: Aesthetic – Literature – Poetry – Modernism – Vanguard – Creacionismo.
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Abstract: «Paranoid Cartographies. Space and Violence in Recent Cultural Production from Honduras». The Central American crime novel has been studied in the context of the region’s civil wars and armed conflicts. These studies point to the climate of paranoia and violence that governs life in these countries. Honduran narratives of crime still remain to be studied, however. This essay focuses on recent Honduran cultural production around crime to define some traits in the narrative treatment of paranoia. The novels Caribe Cocaine and La mitad roja del puente by Ernesto Bondy and art by Alma Leiva are analyzed to argue that these texts present an engagement with paranoia through space. These two artists also stage two different ways of thinking through the affects generated by violence.
Key words: Crime fiction – Paranoia – Art – Honduras.
Abstract: «Body and Memory. ¿Quién puede borrar las huellas?». In July 2003 the Guatemalan artist and writer Regina José Galindo (1974) realized the performance ¿Quién puede borrar las huellas?, walking barefoot for almost an hour from a palace of power to another in Guatemala City, tracing a path of human blood footprints in memory of the victims of the armed conflict occurred in her country, and in rejection of the presidential nomination of the former dictator Efraín Ríos Montt. The spectators, ordinary citizens, through their silence, fear, anger, or astonishment, become actors who embody the lack of historical memory, the impotence and passivity in the face of institutional violence. The artist’s body – bearer of massacred identities – becomes a support for the Guatemalans’ collective identity, and a space of struggle against the oblivion and the State violence. This essay attempts to explore the Galindo’s performance and its symbols (footprints, blood, silence), focusing on the materialization of memory and the visibility of oblivion.
Key words: Body – Violence – Memory/Oblivion – Presence/Absence.
Abstract: «The Dangers of Looking. Detectives Kept Under Surveillance in Senselessness, El material humano, and Pasada de cuentas». This article explores the visuality associated with the state and state-like actors and the counter visuality that writers enact in the Central American context. The novels Senselessness by Horacio Castellanos Moya, El material humano by Rodrigo Rey Rosa, and Pasada de cuentas by Manuel Martínez explore the tensions between the power of visuality and that of counter visuality in the contemporary period of recently democratized societies that, as in the case of Martínez, see an increase in drug trafficking, and the actions of democratic citizens who investigate the truth in their countries. This tension helps explain why Central American detective characters regularly fail.
Key words: Castellanos Moya – Rey Rosa – Manuel Martínez – Crime fiction – Visuality.
Abstract: «Rubén Darío, Camille Aymard and La Renaissance Latine». From 1900 on, Rubén Darío lived in Paris, struggling to find a place for himself in the French intellectual landscape. When Édouard Reyer put him in touch with the recently founded journal La Renaissance Latine, the poet published in its pages a short but important analysis of the future of the Latin peoples of America. But difficulties soon arose, which we describe in this article. In the end the best result of La Renaissance Latine episode was Darío’s friendship with a young and dynamic French lawyer, Camille Aymard.
Key Words: Rubén Darío – Camille Aymard – La Renaissance Latine.
Abstract: «Epístola católica a Rafael Arévalo Martínez by Azarías H. Pallais». This article studies the book by Father Azarías H. Pallais, Epístola católica a Rafael Arévalo Martínez (1947), an excellent book of poems that has not received any critical attention. In this article I show that Father Pallais wanted to send a message to the writers and readers of the time to stay in the way of the good Catholic, choosing good readings, following good examples, maintaining their ethics of justice and favoring the poor and those in need.
Key words: Nicaraguan poetry – Catholicism – Spanish American poetry – European art.
Abstract: Jorge Galán (San Salvador, 1973) es el seudónimo literario de George Alexander Portillo. Licenciado en Letras por la Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas, recibió su primer premio en los Juegos Florales CONCULTURA de su país siendo todavía estudiante y, el mérito de ganarlo en tres ocasiones le otorgó el título de “Gran Maestre de Poesía”. Luego resultó ganador en varios premios de poesía como los Juegos Florales de Quetzaltenango (Guatemala 2004), el Premio Adonais (España 2006) y los Premios del Tren organizados por la Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles (2009).
Aunque se ha destacado ampliamente como poeta, también se ha dedicado a la narrativa y a la escritura infantil. Con la publicación de su primera novela, El sueño de Mariana, obtuvo el Premio Nacional de Novela de El Salvador. En 2013 publicó, en España, la novela La habitación en fondo de la casa que obtuvo un gran éxito europeo y ha sido traducida a diferentes idiomas. La edición italiana salió en marzo de 2016 por Mondadori. En 2015 publicó su última novela Noviembre[ en la que ficcionaliza el asesinato de seis jesuitas y dos mujeres en la UCA de San Salvador. A raíz de la publicación se vio obligado a exiliarse de su país por las graves amenazas de muerte sufridas. Ante esta situación le han mostrado su apoyo intelectuales españoles y latinoamericanos. Por Noviembre, Galán, en 2016, recibió el Premio Real Academia Española (NdR).
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Abstract: About Friendship. Una Reflexión sobre Rubén Darío y Rufino Blanco-Fombona. Those who were not aware of the deep friendship that flourished in Paris in the early twentieth century between Ruben Darío and Rufino Blanco-Fombona, ended up discrediting and defaming it. I should like to undertake this investigation on the basis of a thorough reflection on the philosophical meaning of friendship throughout history, from the Greeks to the present, as well as the themes of friendship in exile and friendship as related to tragedy, so as to thwart the advancement of the spurious idea regarding Blanco-Fombona’s and Darío’s friendship. I will ground my research on the scant surviving correspondence and Journals of the Venezuelan writer, some articles published in the newspaper El Sol, one of the subtitles of Modernism and modernist poets dedicated Ruben Darío, and, lastly, on the preface written by the Nicaraguan writer to Pequeña ópera lírica. My purpose is to show that a rash reaction to a banal fact must not destroy the depth of truthfulness as for decades some would have us believe.
Key words: Friendship – Rubén Darío – Rufino Blanco-Fombona
Abstract: The Trace of Furtive Words. An Approach to the Storybook «Grieta de fatiga» by Fabio Morábito. Fabio Morábito is a contemporary philosopher; his narrative material presents an elevated scriptural awareness in prose and poetry, when revealing the claim of a voice that structures both instances with a distinct style. Every story is confronted with a reflection of the poetic material, centered within a rhythm perceived as a harmonic game of the voices which surpass the ‘identity line’ of the mother tongue. Morábito, as a writer who masters Italian and Spanish, proves to us that it is the literary language which propitates the identifying traits that interest him, without demeaning the linguistic exclusivity; this privilege is evidenced en the meta-linguistic processes that form a part of the fables. The sum of fables in Grieta de fatiga, is a demonstration of the literary talent with which we wish to invite more readers.
Keywords: Morábito – Everyday – Meta-language – Perception – Focalization.
Abstract: «Between fiction and history: Destroying the Myth of the Liberal Government of Justo Rufino Barrios in the novel El sueño de los justos». The aim of this article is to analyze how Spanish-Guatemalan writer Francisco Pérez de Antón’s historic novel, El sueño de los justos (2008) questions and demystifies General Justo Rufino Barrios’ liberal government, as well as his political leadership. The article primarily focuses on how certain aspects of Barrios’ glorious and heroic memory have been inculcated in the average Guatemalan’s mind. Furthermore, the article explores how this ‘glorious and heroic memory’ is problematized throughout the novel by questioning the political actions of General Barrios, who during his administration justified and allowed extensive abuses on the indigenous population, committing human rights violations, and accepting the establishment of a corrupt system in Guatemala.
Key words: Historic novel – Memory – Demystifying – Indigenous exploitation – Human rights violations – Corruption.
Abstract: Ana Istarú: Volcanic Voice. Interview. In the context of a research grant about contemporary Latin American poetry written by women, awarded by the AUIP (Iberoamerican University Assotiation of Postgraduate), the Costa Rican poet, playwright, writer and actress Ana Istarú was interviewed. In the course of this conversation, Ana Istarú talks about the keys to her training and her precocity as a poet, as well as her most influential readings. She comments on her views on the political situation of her country and, in particular, on women’s social situation. In the poetic field, she describes the keys to her poetry, both at an erotic and socially committed level, that in her opinion are the same thing. Next, her career as a poet is reviewed through comments on her most important books, especially La estación de fiebre and Verbo madre.
Key words: Ana Istarú – Interview – Poetry – Feminism – Eroticism.
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Abstract: The Poetry of Rubén Darío Today. In this short paper I intend to review several opinions on the work and personality of the poet from Nicaragua, to highlight the relevance of his poetry within the context of modernist renewal, and finally to underline the relevance of the theme of death in his late poems.
Key words: Bellini – Darío – Modernismo.
Abstract: Modernity and Modernism in «España contemporánea» of Rubén Darío In the chronicles of España contemporánea of Rubén Darío the adjective ‘contemporary’ posed a question to the Spain of the time, an interpellation aimed at questioning the meaning of its place in the world. The question was on the so-called bourgeois modernity, that is the modernity of reason and progress against which the aesthetic modernity of the early 19th century reacted. For this reason, these chronicles represent a trial of the panorama of contemporary Spain with reference to the paradigms of modernity, which encourages the advancement of peoples, and that of modernism as a literary movement which should produce a literature commensurate with the modern or contemporary era. The struggle between old and new is here clearly visible, and the author’s proposal to promote a form of art which might correspond to the spirit of modernity – that is, modernism – stands out. Darío, in short, set out for his Argentinian readers an answer to the Spanish situation providing a panorama which might define its contemporaneity, so that it might be compared to other countries in Europe (France, and in particular Paris) and in the Americas (Buenos Aires) in order to prove whether such modernity was actually present.
Key words: Chronic Modernist – Rubén Dario – España contemporánea.
Abstract: A Poem of Circumstances by Rubén Darío: the «Epístola a la señora de Lugones». “Bacchianas brasileiras” and art of escape in the ‘Golden Island’. Poem of the travels and wanderings, the “Epístola a la señora de Lugones” is one of the major and significant texts of Rubén Dario, although it does not considered the most commented upon. Our reading will stress the conversational tonality of this portrait of the artist as homo viator, finding shelter in Majorca. The epistle blends information, narration, self-irony and lays emphasis on multilingualism as well as on abundant onomastics and toponymy. Speech, versification, rhythm contribute jointly to a lyricism of everyday life which expresses, in exemplary form, the frequent ideal of the ‘Golden Island’ in Rubén Dario’s works. This illusion is a ‘Mediterranean’ aspiration, not only in an ethical, cultural or poetic sense but also in the etymological sense of the word ‘Mediterranean’. That’s how the poetic voice presents the cosmopolitism of Majorca Island: the sea in the middle of lands, the land in the middle of seas, like his native Nicaragua (between the Pacific, the Lake Nicaragua and the Atlantic Ocean).
Key words: Travels – Majorca – Golden Island – Conversational – Mediterranean lyricism.
Abstract: Rubén Darío and Nineteenth Century French Literature. Rubén Darío’s work both in verse and in prose shows his early contact with and his profound knowledge of French literature. The presence of, admiration of and direct or indirect allusion to French authors, mainly those of the nineteenth century and particularly that of Victor Hugo and Paul Verlaine among many others, reveal the influence these have had on his poetic career and his aesthetic preferences, aspects that critics and scholars have emphasized and which we here call his Francophilia, in order to stress that this was the only way in which the poet could find his intellectual home, satisfy his aspirations and live his cosmopolitan life.
Key words: Rubén Darío – French literature – Nineteenth century – Francophilia.
Abstract: Ethics and Aesthetics. Jean-Marie Guyau and the Poetry of Rubén Darío. The aim of the essay is to provide a commentary on the most mature portion of Darío’s writings, namely the poetry collection Prosas profanas (1898) and the essays included in Los Raros (in the edition published in the same year), so as to point out the relations existing between the Nicaraguan author’s conception of creation and art and Jean-Marie Guyau’s philosophy. If Darío cited the XIX-century philosopher several times in his essays, the reflections on good and evil, virtue and vice permeating his poetry actually reveal a departure from the religious dogmatism and positivism characterizing Guyau’s texts, in particular Esquisse d’une morale sans obligation, ni sanction (1885) and L’Art au point de vue sociologique (1889).
Key-words: Rubén Darío – Jean-Marie Guyau – Ethics and Aesthetics – Modernism.
H. Le Corre, “CUERPO, GÉNERO Y LENGUAJE: LA DANZA EN DOS TEXTOS DE RUBÉN DARIO «Miss Isadora Duncan» y «Cléo de Mérode – Nuestra señora de la sonrisa y de la danza»”, Centroamericana, 26.2, pp 115-130
Abstract: Body, Gender and Language: Dance in two Texts of Rubén Darío. «Miss Isadora Duncan» and «Cléo de Mérode – Nuestra señora de la sonrisa y de la danza». Several of Ruben Darío’s works prove the poet’s interest for performing arts, often in their popular forms (such as circus or the pantomime), in which he exalts the moving body, with its multiple expressive possibilities. Considered from a poetic perspective, this allows for a dialogue between the ‘arts of silence’ (again pantomime or dance) and verbal arts. Darío dedicates two famous texts to two contemporary dancers, Cléo de Mérode and Isadora Duncan. Both texts illustrate the fecundity of this dialogue, by means of two essential mechanisms: on the one hand, an approximation to movement that goes from step to pose, that is, on the effect of ‘becoming a statue’ – a feature of the fetishism characterizing “Cléo de Mérode” and in much of Darío’s view of love as ecstasy; on the other hand, a reflection on native, archaic movement, which moves the bodies in “Isadora Duncan”, and that Darío relates to holistic models. While he first presupposes a poetics of re-presentation, of the poem as artifact in the second the poetic body is native, and participates in an enveloping word.
Keys words: Rubén Darío – Cléo de Mérodes – Isadora Duncan – Dance – Poetic.
Abstract: Rubén Darío. Geography, Painting and Landscapes. Rubén Darío always had an almost obsessive interest in painting. His travel writing often focuses on the visual perspective of an exhibition, on art galleries, on his early interest in art magazines where he could see the copies of paintings, painting which create a world by means of painting. Darío’s attention to landscapes is also remarkable (the description of landscapes through words) both in his journal articles and in his poetry. By means of an itinerary through Darío’s works dealing with his most relevant travels, above all those to Europe, I intend to prove his interest in arts and his ability to create literary landscapes connected to his attention to painting.
Keywords: Travel writing – Painting – Landscapes – Chronicles.
Abstract: «Yo soy el Anticristo de la América Central». Readings and Spiritual Crisis of Rubén Darío in 1913. On August 22nd, 1913, Diego Carbonell, a medical doctor from Venezuela, found Rubén Darío talking wildly, drinking heavily, and asserting he was the «Antichrist of Central America». If we look at the books he was reading earlier and which had pushed him to drink, we can see he was going through a spiritual crisis: he had lost faith in the progress of humanity and the meaning of history. His reference to the Antichrist suggests he identified with the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
Keywords: Rubén Darío – Readings – Spiritual Crisis – 1913.
Abstract: Rubén Darío. Poetry and Reflection in «Los motivos del lobo». With sublime material taken from one of the 53 legends of The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi, and a variety of literary references, nourished with real and symbolic significations, Dario crystallizes in “Los motivos del lobo” a new and original text, combining poetic intuition with reason to raise a reflection where man and beast are given, the human and the divine, good and evil, ancient and modern; nevertheless the text is considered as one of his most popular and accessible poems. If the synergy of formal elements and meaning, if l’art du langage captures the poetic message and its success to overcome this apparent contradiction, it is what we aim to make clear in this article.
Key words: Francis of Assisi – The wolf of Gubbio – Motive – Reflection.
Abstract: The Central American Theater in the Social and Aesthetic Debates of the Modernity. During his Parisian experience (1924-1933), Miguel Angel Asturias wrote one of the pioneering theoretical essays on the way to be undertaken by the Latin American theater: “Reflexiones sobre la posibilidad de un teatro americano de inspiración indigena” (1930). In that essay, he proposed strategies to articulate the American Indian cultural roots and modernity in American theatricality. Works such as Rayito de Estrella or Kukulkan, serpiente-envuelta-en-plumas are paradigmatic examples of his conceptions. In the first half of the twentieth century other proposals have been performed (Carlos Solórzano, Manuel Galich, Miguel Marsicovétere y Duran, Rogelio Sinan, the theater of the Vanguard Movement in Nicaragua), seeking ways to debate and question the authoritarian schemes and the aesthetic canons. In this paper we analyze some of these dramatic proposals and their meanings that have emerged in the first half of the twentieth century, as scenic areas of discussion of modernity.
Key Words: Theater – Central America- Authoritarianism – Modernity – Vanguard.
Abstract: Literary labels and distorted canons. Latin American literature in Italy between stereotypes and misguided views. The aim of this study is to analyse some peritexts that have been used in the editorial and cultural sphere to describe Latin American books and presenting them to the Italian public. At the same time, we will analyse the interpretative mechanisms that the Italian intellectuals reserved to the works of “realismo magico”, to observe the different dynamics of interpretation that the term (in use in Italy via the work of Massimo Bontempelli) triggered at the moment of interpreting and reading the literary production of an entire subcontinent.
Key words: Centro American Literature – Reception theory – Translation – Literature – Market.
Abstract: Notes for a re-reading of Mario Monteforte Toledo’s novels. The aim of this article is to highlight the pioneering aspects of the novels by the Guatemalan author Mario Monteforte Toledo. In order to do that, it takes some distance from the critical tradition that has read his works from the perspective of regionalism or of social realism, and suggests to study them as ‘intellectual fictions’. Indeed, Monteforte’s novels put into question the optimism typical with the forties and fifties of last century, when in Latin America and thus, in Guatemala, civilizing projects were unquestionable. Monteforte works show a critical and sceptic attitude towards some of the totems of modern culture (bourgeois revolution, mingling of different races, progress, blind faith in Marxist), and this skepticism anticipates contemporary thinking. Moreover, the narrative of Monteforte Toledo portrays the return from enlightened collectivism to the individual, and this is interesting because it anticipates a problem that will be taken up, several decades later, by Central American postwar novelists.
Key Words: Mario Monteforte Toledo – Intellectual – Modernity – Critics – Individual.
Abstract: The Franco-Central Americans and the First World War. Notes on Central American presence on the European conflict. The main objective of this article is to analyze the engagement of the Franco-Central Americans after the general calling made by the French Government on August 2nd, 1914 following France’s declaration of war. This calling was widely broadcasted by the Central American press, however, our interest lies in the registers kept by the Consulate General of France in Central America, which reveal to us the alternatives that those children and grand-children of French expatriates, despite their frequent ignorance of their elders’ language or land, had: either enlist straight away or be declared ‘disobedient’ – a very serious offence in wartime. In this year of celebration of the First World War centenary, we intend to study the Central American presence in Europe, not only its heroes, but also all those who did not want to turn themselves in to the slaughter of the trenches.
Keywords: First World War – Central America – Disobedience – French army – Franco- Central Americans – French immigration.
Astract: Localism and Cosmopolitanism in the Film «Distancia» by Sergio Ramirez. The film “Distancia” (2010) by Guatemalan director Sergio Ramirez is based on real facts occurred in recent years. During the 80’s, in Guatemala a genocide was perpetrated against the indigenous population. This caused the death of 200,000 people, the leak to Mexico of more than 50,000 Mayan and a little-known phenomenon: the exodus to the mountains of one million people, wich received the name of CPR (Communities of Population in Resistance). The film tells a story derived from such escape. The article analyzes the film, an through that analysis tries to show how geographic distance became a symbolic distance, metaphor of distance between the different ethnic groups of Guatemala.
Key Words: Guatemala – “Distancia” – Sergio Ramirez – Genocidio – CPR – Symbolic distance.
Abstract: Translation Choices between Rhythm and Functionality. Italian Translation of «Men ofMaize» by M.À. Asturias. From a critical perspective of ‘Translation Studies’, this work discusses some aspects of the Italian translation of the novel Men of Maize by Miguel Angel Asturias in order to reconstruct strategies and decisions taken in the process of translation, assuming that the activity of translation is a functional interpretation of the different linguistic and cultural elements present in the source text through which it is possible reaching a global representation of literary creation.
Key words: Miguel Angel Asturias – Translation Studies – Uomini di mais – Literary Translation – Hombres de maiz.
Astract: Female Iconography in Art and Cinema and its Appropriation in the Work of Luis de Lión. The article analyzes two texts of the Guatemalan writer Luis de Lion considering the configuration of the female archetypes present in these texts as well as their links with European traditions and cultural discourses, as they appear in two key works of the twentieth century cinematography. The cultural conflict alluded by the texts of Luis de Lion can be read, at the same time, as an innovative proposal and a transgressive representation of the Guatemalan historical conflict that takes into account not only public space and history, but also private space, one where ladinización has left a violated emotional architecture.
Key Words: Luis de Lión – Femininity – Masculinity – Image – Cultural conflict – Violence
Abstract: Culture(s) in the Costa Rican Caribbean. Between ”creolization” and “folklorization”. The Afro-Costa Rican culture in Costa Rica has multiple faces due to the contact between several different cultures and languages: the indigenous cultures and their languages, Costa Rican culture and Spanish, Chinese culture and Chinese, and last but not least, Afro-Caribbean culture and creole English. This article will deal with the hybridization undergone by the Afro-Caribbean culture, which suffered a process of “folklorization”, and the Spanish speaking Costa Rican culture. The analysis of said hybridization will be inspired by the concept of “creolization” coined by Édouard Glissant. Furthermore, this article will dismiss the mere addition of cultures so as to propose an analytic model based in the mutual influence applicable to cultures and languages in contact.
Key words: Caribbean Culture – Costa Rica – Minority Group – Creolization – Folklorization.
Abstract: The descent to the underworld in Mayan world. The cases of the Popol Vuh, Men of Maize and shamanic rituals in Petén Forest.The descent of a hero to the underworld is a universal and mythical topic, which in the case of Mayan culture must be understood from the complementary perspectives of astronomy, archaeological findings and literary study of the myths. For purposes of the making-up of this work, the presence of this myth in Mayan world will be approached from the foci of disciplines that are seen as separate. First, it will be highlighted the most significant moments that Popol Vuh includes from the trip of two pairs of twins to the underworld. Then, it will be done a brief summary of the features that presents the movement of the planet Venus, to explain the relationship that, according to Dennis Tedlock, it maintains with the descent of the twins to Xibalbá. It will be also studied how Miguel Ángel Asturias develops the topic in his novel Men of Maize (1949). Finally, it will be done a comment on the importance and effect that this myth has among indigenous communities with Mayan origin, as a living reality that is part of their beliefs.
Key words: Descent to the underworld – Myth – Mayan culture – Cycle of Venus – Guatemalan novel.
Abstract: From anger to disgust. Reflections on the intellectual-writer en Central America “after the bombs” and its impact on literature. The role played by the intellectual in Central America has been experiencing significant changes, particularly since the end of the armed conflicts and the signing of the peace treaties in different countries of the isthmus. At the same time and especially since the nineties the literary field in Central America, in general, has been undergoing profound transformations with regard to the function of literature as an instance of creation of meaning and as an organizing institution in the cultural field. That period not only coincides with the end of the armed conflicts and the transition towards more civil and democratic forms of government, but also with the fundamental changes on the global level (the end of the Soviet Union with all its consequences) and the technological and commercial/economic repercussions of the current phase of accelerated globalization in the region. With the end of the armed conflicts and even more due to the impact of those changes in the cultural field itself –particularly the technological revolution – the Central American intellectual-writer has lost its hegemonic position in the cultural and political discourses. Which role will he play for the future of the Central American societies that currently are going through multiple processes of social, political and cultural change? The present essay presents some preliminary reflections on these topics in relation with that figure so dominant in the Central American literatures, based on a reading of contemporary Central American narrative, especially novels, and focussed in the literary representation of the intellectual.
Keywords: Intellectual – Literature – Central America – Armed Conflict – New Technologies.
Abstract: Writing the impossible. The archive as a reconstruction of a social class in «Tiempo de fulgor» by Sergio Ramírez. The present article is a brief analysis of the construction of an archive in the novel Tiempo de fulgor by Sergio Ramírez. This archive determines the identity of a social class that is struggling to reconstruct itself in a time of decadence. In order to understand the development of this archive and its significance, the article will begin with the identification of the archivists among the personalities of the novel. Furthermore, it will discuss the contextual references of these archivists and their project as a symbol of power – the powerful families and their family archives. Also, it will discuss the construction of the archive by a fossilized narrator and it will finally identify the opportunities which are presented by this failed archive within the context of the pre-Sandinista Nicaragua.
Key words: Pre-Sandinista Nicaragua – Family archive – Social decadence – Identity
Abstract: Crosses, Bodies and Food in the Representation of the Mayan Ritual Space. This paper is about the symbolism of the cross in the Mayan world, from the plastic manifestations of the pre-Hispanic era to modern syncretic significance. Soon associated with the Christian cross by the first European conquers, the recurrence of the cross in the Mayan cultural universe demonstrates its importance and role in the organization of ritual space. From the foliate crosses wich mark the center of the universe, even the green crosses dressed with huiples and adorned by flowers, this symbol represents the intersection of possibilities and the center of human energy. The cross allows communication between different dimensions and is a ritual space sign. For this reason, the objects in Maya ritual tables follow a quadripartite arrangement of space and mark the cosmic orientation. I will examine the multiple meanings of the Mayan cross, the values inherited from pre-Hispanic past and modern syncretic conceptions.
Key words: Mayan cross – Symbolism of the cross – The Mayan ritual space – Syncretism in Mayan culture.
Riassunto: Tradurre i Raros di R. Darío, raccolta di saggi che ha giocato un ruolo di centralità nel processo di importazione in America Latina del simbolismo, ha comportato un lavoro rigoroso e approfondito di ricostruzione dell’universo di letture e riferimenti che soggiacciono alle sagaci e colte chiose dell’autore. Il presente articolo intende mettere a fuoco i punti nodali di quel processo mostrando quanto, e in che modo, le indagini e gli affondi nell’universo culturale dariano funzionali alla traduzione abbiano contribuito a comprendere le forme e i modi di quell’importazione.
Parole chiave: R. Darío – Los raros – Simbolismo – Traduzione – Studio culturale.
Abstract: Love and Eroticism in the «Sonetos de uso doméstico» by José Coronel Urtecho. The Sonetos de uso doméstico by the Nicaraguan poet José Coronel Urtecho, which is enshrined this article, is a particular poetic exercise within the set of his poetry and in the context of literary trends of his time, inclined rather to the shapes of the vanguards. The aim of this study is to provide some lights from an hermeneutic perspective on the aesthetics and meaning of the text, open to the movements that come and go from the interior and exterior space into a structure of horizon, whose notion serves as a pivot and from which also we investigate the poetic motivations of love and eroticism; for what we followed Octavio Paz proposals on the topic. From this double perspective, we seek to identify the classic structure of the texts and its referential wealth in order to show that they form a polyphonic display that is extraordinary in their time and context.
Key words: «Structure of Horizon» – Love – Eroticism – Classical Sonnets.
Abstract: From the “audiencia de los confines” to the ‘audiencia de los márgenes’. The Theatre of the Memory of Jorgelina Cerritos. The present work offers an analysis of the play La audiencia de los confines. Primer ensayo sobre la memoria (staged and published in 2013) by Salvadorian playwright Jorgelina Cerritos. As the subtitle suggests, the play is the first part of a trilogy which focuses on the reclamation of historical as well as individual memory. In this first “attempt”, Cerritos stages History, Memory and Truth, whose articulation appears to be the necessary path for building a renewed space for cohabitation and sharing. Reclaiming memory thus acquires ethical implications, as argued by Paul Ricoeur, whose elaborations on history, memory and recognition provide the theoretical framework for this paper. Moreover, my analysis will engage with the theatrical dimension of the play, focusing on the written text, with its dialogues and stage directions, as well as on its staging. As the fractures and continuities between the text and its performance trigger a radical change in its reception, I will also analyze the reader and the audience’s aesthetic experience, considering it as a dynamic process.
Key words: Jorgelina Cerritos – Salvadorian literature – Theatre – Memory
Abstract: Macho Camacho’s Beat in the Crossroads of Literature, Media Culture and Consumption. To approach today to a work like Macho Camacho’s Beat (1976) of the writer Luis Rafael Sánchez (1936) from the field of Latinoamerican cultural studies leads to the reinterpretation of this novel as an specific moment of the implantation in Puerto Rico of global consumer culture. The literary work in general, that for Raymond Williams is assimilated, from the rise of bourgeoisie to the power – and, in consequence, of its values’ system – with determinated characteristics, comes into a scope of dialogue, negotiation and dispute with media culture, that is tightly bonded to the economic preponderance of media. The approximations and rejects of this media culture are relationated with cultural and economic cannibalism in the measure that we are, fundamentally, what we consume. The undertaken and developped satire of consumption without limits in this novel aims that the author postulates this society as failed or unviable – remember here the traffic jam symbol – if it abandons itself to the market and to the hegemonic powers of international capitalism and political demagoguery.
Key words: Latinoamerican Cultural Studies – Media Culture – Capitalism – Puerto Rican Novel – Satire.
Abstract: Towards a Spanish-French Dictionary of Lexical Central Americanisms. A double elaboration, by literary extraction and confirmation of use. The very substance of the indigenous narratives of Central America (1920-1970) has led us to analyze the regional linguistic idiosyncracies they contain, i.e. their formal constituents. The “screening” of some hundred literary works allowed us to create the first sizeable specific lexicon of this geographic area and of the “extended” period 1920-1990. Using a syntagmatic corpus (literary discourse or textual data), we built up a paradigmatic corpus (of independent and reusable language units), with a clear descriptive, synthetic and didactic intention. Our purpose here is to offer the double methodological approach to our Dictionary of Central American Spanish whose actualized and bilingual Spanish-French version is now ready.
Key words: Lexicography – Literary discourse – Regionalism – Language use – Central America
Abstract: The poetical works of Clementina Suárez. Y que he encontrado la verdad en la médula de mis huesos. The appearance in Tegucigalpa in 2012 of Complete Poetry of Clementina Suárez makes first full knowledge of the work of the Honduran poet, previously only partially accessible. In this paper a review of his poetic journey is from its beginnings in the romantic line and postmodernist Corazón sangrante (1930) to move to the stage of greater uniformity and erotic incorporation of poetic prose books published in Mexico in 1931: Iniciales, De mis sábados el último y Los templos de fuego. The theme of motherhood will become permanent and poetics of the body is Engranajes (1935). From Veleros (Havana, 1937) the previous reverie is broken and begins to exhibit political consciousness. In his later poems, poetry no longer has to do with feeling but with blood and death, that is, with what we call the vital commitment and human history including the issue of motherhood. The love theme will receive a new vigor in the long poem of 1957, Creciendo con la hierba (1957), a masterpiece in which through eight sections updated the theme of love as an engine of human life incardinated into a united world.
Keywords: Spanish American Poetry – Poetry Honduras – Clementina Suárez.
Abstract: «Expediente Sra Eva Mameli de Calvino», a valuable foreign botanist in Cuba. Cuba still remembers Eva Mameli, Italo Calvino’s mother, as the first woman to hold an executive position in the field of agriculture. Through the recently restored Dossier Eva Mameli, kept in the Cuban archives, you can confirm the agenda of her main activities in the caribeña island. You will find the authorized missions, the undertaking by ministerial decree of the first executive office as the director of the Department of Botany on December 1, 1920, “by virtue of her knowledge” and with an annual fee of 2,400 Cuban pesos, a paid license for “personal issues” lasting one month as asked by Mameli herself on the day of Italo’s birth. During those 5 years in Central America, well as directing the Department of Botany of the Estación Experimental Agronómica di Santiago de las Vegas, together with Mario Calvino, she promotes agricultural schools for the settlers’ children, fosters women’s education in science and agriculture, supports a range of outreach activities for children as the holiday tree, and social as the Día de las Madres and – every October 10 – the commemoration of the beginning of the Cuban independence struggles, thus fully immersing in the cultural life of the place that hosts her.
Key words: Biography – Mameli – Cuba – Calvino.
Riassunto: L’articolo racconta, attraverso l’itinerario di una lunga amicizia, la vicenda letteraria di Miguel Ángel Asturias, da quando è arrivato in Italia. L’autore traccia un profilo della produzione dell’autore guatemalteco e lo illustra con la narrazione degli interscambi fra scrittore e critico, anche attraverso una lettera autografa. L’autore dichiara la sua preferenza per Mulata de Tal e Viernes de Dolores, perché in questi romanzi Asturias raggiunge le massime vette di capacità di affabulazione e di straordinaria ricchezza linguistica.
Parole chiave: Bellini – Asturias – Narrativa.
Abstract: Claim of Miguel Ángel Asturias. The first part of the article reflects on the poetry of Asturias, considered in its stylistic-formal aspects, in order to propose the idea of a privileged use of the music of the language in the author. The second part explores the relationship of Asturias with Guatemala, from the linguistic aspect. Following Bakhtin’s concept of “pluridiscourse”, the various forms of Guatemalan talks are reviewed, and it is explained how the author raises this forms to a literary language. The third part enhances the narrative qualities of the author, including his creative imagination, a boundless inventiveness where happiness of fantasy corresponds to happiness of style.
Key words: Asturias – Poetry – Narrative.