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Abstract: The Central American Theater in the Social and Aesthetic Debates of the Modernity. During his Parisian experience (1924-1933), Miguel Angel Asturias wrote one of the pioneering theoretical essays on the way to be undertaken by the Latin American theater: “Reflexiones sobre la posibilidad de un teatro americano de inspiración indigena” (1930). In that essay, he proposed strategies to articulate the American Indian cultural roots and modernity in American theatricality. Works such as Rayito de Estrella or Kukulkan, serpiente-envuelta-en-plumas are paradigmatic examples of his conceptions. In the first half of the twentieth century other proposals have been performed (Carlos Solórzano, Manuel Galich, Miguel Marsicovétere y Duran, Rogelio Sinan, the theater of the Vanguard Movement in Nicaragua), seeking ways to debate and question the authoritarian schemes and the aesthetic canons. In this paper we analyze some of these dramatic proposals and their meanings that have emerged in the first half of the twentieth century, as scenic areas of discussion of modernity.
Key Words: Theater – Central America- Authoritarianism – Modernity – Vanguard.
Abstract: Literary labels and distorted canons. Latin American literature in Italy between stereotypes and misguided views. The aim of this study is to analyse some peritexts that have been used in the editorial and cultural sphere to describe Latin American books and presenting them to the Italian public. At the same time, we will analyse the interpretative mechanisms that the Italian intellectuals reserved to the works of “realismo magico”, to observe the different dynamics of interpretation that the term (in use in Italy via the work of Massimo Bontempelli) triggered at the moment of interpreting and reading the literary production of an entire subcontinent.
Key words: Centro American Literature – Reception theory – Translation – Literature – Market.
Abstract: Notes for a re-reading of Mario Monteforte Toledo’s novels. The aim of this article is to highlight the pioneering aspects of the novels by the Guatemalan author Mario Monteforte Toledo. In order to do that, it takes some distance from the critical tradition that has read his works from the perspective of regionalism or of social realism, and suggests to study them as ‘intellectual fictions’. Indeed, Monteforte’s novels put into question the optimism typical with the forties and fifties of last century, when in Latin America and thus, in Guatemala, civilizing projects were unquestionable. Monteforte works show a critical and sceptic attitude towards some of the totems of modern culture (bourgeois revolution, mingling of different races, progress, blind faith in Marxist), and this skepticism anticipates contemporary thinking. Moreover, the narrative of Monteforte Toledo portrays the return from enlightened collectivism to the individual, and this is interesting because it anticipates a problem that will be taken up, several decades later, by Central American postwar novelists.
Key Words: Mario Monteforte Toledo – Intellectual – Modernity – Critics – Individual.
Abstract: The Franco-Central Americans and the First World War. Notes on Central American presence on the European conflict. The main objective of this article is to analyze the engagement of the Franco-Central Americans after the general calling made by the French Government on August 2nd, 1914 following France’s declaration of war. This calling was widely broadcasted by the Central American press, however, our interest lies in the registers kept by the Consulate General of France in Central America, which reveal to us the alternatives that those children and grand-children of French expatriates, despite their frequent ignorance of their elders’ language or land, had: either enlist straight away or be declared ‘disobedient’ – a very serious offence in wartime. In this year of celebration of the First World War centenary, we intend to study the Central American presence in Europe, not only its heroes, but also all those who did not want to turn themselves in to the slaughter of the trenches.
Keywords: First World War – Central America – Disobedience – French army – Franco- Central Americans – French immigration.
Astract: Localism and Cosmopolitanism in the Film «Distancia» by Sergio Ramirez. The film “Distancia” (2010) by Guatemalan director Sergio Ramirez is based on real facts occurred in recent years. During the 80’s, in Guatemala a genocide was perpetrated against the indigenous population. This caused the death of 200,000 people, the leak to Mexico of more than 50,000 Mayan and a little-known phenomenon: the exodus to the mountains of one million people, wich received the name of CPR (Communities of Population in Resistance). The film tells a story derived from such escape. The article analyzes the film, an through that analysis tries to show how geographic distance became a symbolic distance, metaphor of distance between the different ethnic groups of Guatemala.
Key Words: Guatemala – “Distancia” – Sergio Ramirez – Genocidio – CPR – Symbolic distance.
Abstract: Translation Choices between Rhythm and Functionality. Italian Translation of «Men ofMaize» by M.À. Asturias. From a critical perspective of ‘Translation Studies’, this work discusses some aspects of the Italian translation of the novel Men of Maize by Miguel Angel Asturias in order to reconstruct strategies and decisions taken in the process of translation, assuming that the activity of translation is a functional interpretation of the different linguistic and cultural elements present in the source text through which it is possible reaching a global representation of literary creation.
Key words: Miguel Angel Asturias – Translation Studies – Uomini di mais – Literary Translation – Hombres de maiz.
Astract: Female Iconography in Art and Cinema and its Appropriation in the Work of Luis de Lión. The article analyzes two texts of the Guatemalan writer Luis de Lion considering the configuration of the female archetypes present in these texts as well as their links with European traditions and cultural discourses, as they appear in two key works of the twentieth century cinematography. The cultural conflict alluded by the texts of Luis de Lion can be read, at the same time, as an innovative proposal and a transgressive representation of the Guatemalan historical conflict that takes into account not only public space and history, but also private space, one where ladinización has left a violated emotional architecture.
Key Words: Luis de Lión – Femininity – Masculinity – Image – Cultural conflict – Violence
Abstract: Culture(s) in the Costa Rican Caribbean. Between ”creolization” and “folklorization”. The Afro-Costa Rican culture in Costa Rica has multiple faces due to the contact between several different cultures and languages: the indigenous cultures and their languages, Costa Rican culture and Spanish, Chinese culture and Chinese, and last but not least, Afro-Caribbean culture and creole English. This article will deal with the hybridization undergone by the Afro-Caribbean culture, which suffered a process of “folklorization”, and the Spanish speaking Costa Rican culture. The analysis of said hybridization will be inspired by the concept of “creolization” coined by Édouard Glissant. Furthermore, this article will dismiss the mere addition of cultures so as to propose an analytic model based in the mutual influence applicable to cultures and languages in contact.
Key words: Caribbean Culture – Costa Rica – Minority Group – Creolization – Folklorization.
Abstract: The descent to the underworld in Mayan world. The cases of the Popol Vuh, Men of Maize and shamanic rituals in Petén Forest.The descent of a hero to the underworld is a universal and mythical topic, which in the case of Mayan culture must be understood from the complementary perspectives of astronomy, archaeological findings and literary study of the myths. For purposes of the making-up of this work, the presence of this myth in Mayan world will be approached from the foci of disciplines that are seen as separate. First, it will be highlighted the most significant moments that Popol Vuh includes from the trip of two pairs of twins to the underworld. Then, it will be done a brief summary of the features that presents the movement of the planet Venus, to explain the relationship that, according to Dennis Tedlock, it maintains with the descent of the twins to Xibalbá. It will be also studied how Miguel Ángel Asturias develops the topic in his novel Men of Maize (1949). Finally, it will be done a comment on the importance and effect that this myth has among indigenous communities with Mayan origin, as a living reality that is part of their beliefs.
Key words: Descent to the underworld – Myth – Mayan culture – Cycle of Venus – Guatemalan novel.
Abstract: From anger to disgust. Reflections on the intellectual-writer en Central America “after the bombs” and its impact on literature. The role played by the intellectual in Central America has been experiencing significant changes, particularly since the end of the armed conflicts and the signing of the peace treaties in different countries of the isthmus. At the same time and especially since the nineties the literary field in Central America, in general, has been undergoing profound transformations with regard to the function of literature as an instance of creation of meaning and as an organizing institution in the cultural field. That period not only coincides with the end of the armed conflicts and the transition towards more civil and democratic forms of government, but also with the fundamental changes on the global level (the end of the Soviet Union with all its consequences) and the technological and commercial/economic repercussions of the current phase of accelerated globalization in the region. With the end of the armed conflicts and even more due to the impact of those changes in the cultural field itself –particularly the technological revolution – the Central American intellectual-writer has lost its hegemonic position in the cultural and political discourses. Which role will he play for the future of the Central American societies that currently are going through multiple processes of social, political and cultural change? The present essay presents some preliminary reflections on these topics in relation with that figure so dominant in the Central American literatures, based on a reading of contemporary Central American narrative, especially novels, and focussed in the literary representation of the intellectual.
Keywords: Intellectual – Literature – Central America – Armed Conflict – New Technologies.
Abstract: Writing the impossible. The archive as a reconstruction of a social class in «Tiempo de fulgor» by Sergio Ramírez. The present article is a brief analysis of the construction of an archive in the novel Tiempo de fulgor by Sergio Ramírez. This archive determines the identity of a social class that is struggling to reconstruct itself in a time of decadence. In order to understand the development of this archive and its significance, the article will begin with the identification of the archivists among the personalities of the novel. Furthermore, it will discuss the contextual references of these archivists and their project as a symbol of power – the powerful families and their family archives. Also, it will discuss the construction of the archive by a fossilized narrator and it will finally identify the opportunities which are presented by this failed archive within the context of the pre-Sandinista Nicaragua.
Key words: Pre-Sandinista Nicaragua – Family archive – Social decadence – Identity
Abstract: Crosses, Bodies and Food in the Representation of the Mayan Ritual Space. This paper is about the symbolism of the cross in the Mayan world, from the plastic manifestations of the pre-Hispanic era to modern syncretic significance. Soon associated with the Christian cross by the first European conquers, the recurrence of the cross in the Mayan cultural universe demonstrates its importance and role in the organization of ritual space. From the foliate crosses wich mark the center of the universe, even the green crosses dressed with huiples and adorned by flowers, this symbol represents the intersection of possibilities and the center of human energy. The cross allows communication between different dimensions and is a ritual space sign. For this reason, the objects in Maya ritual tables follow a quadripartite arrangement of space and mark the cosmic orientation. I will examine the multiple meanings of the Mayan cross, the values inherited from pre-Hispanic past and modern syncretic conceptions.
Key words: Mayan cross – Symbolism of the cross – The Mayan ritual space – Syncretism in Mayan culture.
Alessandra Ghezzani, La traduzione dei «raros» come studio culturale
Riassunto: Tradurre i Raros di R. Darío, raccolta di saggi che ha giocato un ruolo di centralità nel processo di importazione in America Latina del simbolismo, ha comportato un lavoro rigoroso e approfondito di ricostruzione dell’universo di letture e riferimenti che soggiacciono alle sagaci e colte chiose dell’autore. Il presente articolo intende mettere a fuoco i punti nodali di quel processo mostrando quanto, e in che modo, le indagini e gli affondi nell’universo culturale dariano funzionali alla traduzione abbiano contribuito a comprendere le forme e i modi di quell’importazione.
Parole chiave: R. Darío – Los raros – Simbolismo – Traduzione – Studio culturale.
Gloriantonia Henríquez, Amor y erotismo en los «sonetos de uso doméstico» de José Coronel Urtecho
Abstract: Love and Eroticism in the «Sonetos de uso doméstico» by José Coronel Urtecho. The Sonetos de uso doméstico by the Nicaraguan poet José Coronel Urtecho, which is enshrined this article, is a particular poetic exercise within the set of his poetry and in the context of literary trends of his time, inclined rather to the shapes of the vanguards. The aim of this study is to provide some lights from an hermeneutic perspective on the aesthetics and meaning of the text, open to the movements that come and go from the interior and exterior space into a structure of horizon, whose notion serves as a pivot and from which also we investigate the poetic motivations of love and eroticism; for what we followed Octavio Paz proposals on the topic. From this double perspective, we seek to identify the classic structure of the texts and its referential wealth in order to show that they form a polyphonic display that is extraordinary in their time and context.
Key words: «Structure of Horizon» – Love – Eroticism – Classical Sonnets.
Abstract: From the “audiencia de los confines” to the ‘audiencia de los márgenes’. The Theatre of the Memory of Jorgelina Cerritos. The present work offers an analysis of the play La audiencia de los confines. Primer ensayo sobre la memoria (staged and published in 2013) by Salvadorian playwright Jorgelina Cerritos. As the subtitle suggests, the play is the first part of a trilogy which focuses on the reclamation of historical as well as individual memory. In this first “attempt”, Cerritos stages History, Memory and Truth, whose articulation appears to be the necessary path for building a renewed space for cohabitation and sharing. Reclaiming memory thus acquires ethical implications, as argued by Paul Ricoeur, whose elaborations on history, memory and recognition provide the theoretical framework for this paper. Moreover, my analysis will engage with the theatrical dimension of the play, focusing on the written text, with its dialogues and stage directions, as well as on its staging. As the fractures and continuities between the text and its performance trigger a radical change in its reception, I will also analyze the reader and the audience’s aesthetic experience, considering it as a dynamic process.
Key words: Jorgelina Cerritos – Salvadorian literature – Theatre – Memory
Edson Steven Guáqueta Rocha, «La guaracha del Macho Camacho» en la encrucijada de la literatura, la cultura de masas y el consumo
Abstract: Macho Camacho’s Beat in the Crossroads of Literature, Media Culture and Consumption. To approach today to a work like Macho Camacho’s Beat (1976) of the writer Luis Rafael Sánchez (1936) from the field of Latinoamerican cultural studies leads to the reinterpretation of this novel as an specific moment of the implantation in Puerto Rico of global consumer culture. The literary work in general, that for Raymond Williams is assimilated, from the rise of bourgeoisie to the power – and, in consequence, of its values’ system – with determinated characteristics, comes into a scope of dialogue, negotiation and dispute with media culture, that is tightly bonded to the economic preponderance of media. The approximations and rejects of this media culture are relationated with cultural and economic cannibalism in the measure that we are, fundamentally, what we consume. The undertaken and developped satire of consumption without limits in this novel aims that the author postulates this society as failed or unviable – remember here the traffic jam symbol – if it abandons itself to the market and to the hegemonic powers of international capitalism and political demagoguery.
Key words: Latinoamerican Cultural Studies – Media Culture – Capitalism – Puerto Rican Novel – Satire.
Abstract: Towards a Spanish-French Dictionary of Lexical Central Americanisms. A double elaboration, by literary extraction and confirmation of use. The very substance of the indigenous narratives of Central America (1920-1970) has led us to analyze the regional linguistic idiosyncracies they contain, i.e. their formal constituents. The “screening” of some hundred literary works allowed us to create the first sizeable specific lexicon of this geographic area and of the “extended” period 1920-1990. Using a syntagmatic corpus (literary discourse or textual data), we built up a paradigmatic corpus (of independent and reusable language units), with a clear descriptive, synthetic and didactic intention. Our purpose here is to offer the double methodological approach to our Dictionary of Central American Spanish whose actualized and bilingual Spanish-French version is now ready.
Key words: Lexicography – Literary discourse – Regionalism – Language use – Central America
Carmen Ruiz Barrionuevo, La obra poética de Clementina Suárez. «Y que he encontrado la verdad en la médula de mis huesos»
Abstract: The poetical works of Clementina Suárez. Y que he encontrado la verdad en la médula de mis huesos. The appearance in Tegucigalpa in 2012 of Complete Poetry of Clementina Suárez makes first full knowledge of the work of the Honduran poet, previously only partially accessible. In this paper a review of his poetic journey is from its beginnings in the romantic line and postmodernist Corazón sangrante (1930) to move to the stage of greater uniformity and erotic incorporation of poetic prose books published in Mexico in 1931: Iniciales, De mis sábados el último y Los templos de fuego. The theme of motherhood will become permanent and poetics of the body is Engranajes (1935). From Veleros (Havana, 1937) the previous reverie is broken and begins to exhibit political consciousness. In his later poems, poetry no longer has to do with feeling but with blood and death, that is, with what we call the vital commitment and human history including the issue of motherhood. The love theme will receive a new vigor in the long poem of 1957, Creciendo con la hierba (1957), a masterpiece in which through eight sections updated the theme of love as an engine of human life incardinated into a united world.
Keywords: Spanish American Poetry – Poetry Honduras – Clementina Suárez.
M. Cristina Secci, «Expediente Sra Eva Mameli de Calvino», utile e forestiera botanica a Cuba
Abstract: «Expediente Sra Eva Mameli de Calvino», a valuable foreign botanist in Cuba. Cuba still remembers Eva Mameli, Italo Calvino’s mother, as the first woman to hold an executive position in the field of agriculture. Through the recently restored Dossier Eva Mameli, kept in the Cuban archives, you can confirm the agenda of her main activities in the caribeña island. You will find the authorized missions, the undertaking by ministerial decree of the first executive office as the director of the Department of Botany on December 1, 1920, “by virtue of her knowledge” and with an annual fee of 2,400 Cuban pesos, a paid license for “personal issues” lasting one month as asked by Mameli herself on the day of Italo’s birth. During those 5 years in Central America, well as directing the Department of Botany of the Estación Experimental Agronómica di Santiago de las Vegas, together with Mario Calvino, she promotes agricultural schools for the settlers’ children, fosters women’s education in science and agriculture, supports a range of outreach activities for children as the holiday tree, and social as the Día de las Madres and – every October 10 – the commemoration of the beginning of the Cuban independence struggles, thus fully immersing in the cultural life of the place that hosts her.
Key words: Biography – Mameli – Cuba – Calvino.
Giuseppe Bellini, Cosa ha significato per me Asturias
Riassunto: L’articolo racconta, attraverso l’itinerario di una lunga amicizia, la vicenda letteraria di Miguel Ángel Asturias, da quando è arrivato in Italia. L’autore traccia un profilo della produzione dell’autore guatemalteco e lo illustra con la narrazione degli interscambi fra scrittore e critico, anche attraverso una lettera autografa. L’autore dichiara la sua preferenza per Mulata de Tal e Viernes de Dolores, perché in questi romanzi Asturias raggiunge le massime vette di capacità di affabulazione e di straordinaria ricchezza linguistica.
Parole chiave: Bellini – Asturias – Narrativa.
Dante Liano, Reivindicación de Miguel Ángel Asturias
Abstract: Claim of Miguel Ángel Asturias. The first part of the article reflects on the poetry of Asturias, considered in its stylistic-formal aspects, in order to propose the idea of a privileged use of the music of the language in the author. The second part explores the relationship of Asturias with Guatemala, from the linguistic aspect. Following Bakhtin’s concept of “pluridiscourse”, the various forms of Guatemalan talks are reviewed, and it is explained how the author raises this forms to a literary language. The third part enhances the narrative qualities of the author, including his creative imagination, a boundless inventiveness where happiness of fantasy corresponds to happiness of style.
Key words: Asturias – Poetry – Narrative.
Hortensia Naizara Rodríguez, La poética de Jorge Artel más allá del Estado-Nación
Carmelo Andrea Spadola, Literatura y visión tanatológica. Claribel Alegría y el diálogo con los muertos