Abstract: The Central American Theater in the Social and Aesthetic Debates of the Modernity. During his Parisian experience (1924-1933), Miguel Angel Asturias wrote one of the pioneering theoretical essays on the way to be undertaken by the Latin American theater: “Reflexiones sobre la posibilidad de un teatro americano de inspiración indigena” (1930). In that essay, he proposed strategies to articulate the American Indian cultural roots and modernity in American theatricality. Works such as Rayito de Estrella or Kukulkan, serpiente-envuelta-en-plumas are paradigmatic examples of his conceptions. In the first half of the twentieth century other proposals have been performed (Carlos Solórzano, Manuel Galich, Miguel Marsicovétere y Duran, Rogelio Sinan, the theater of the Vanguard Movement in Nicaragua), seeking ways to debate and question the authoritarian schemes and the aesthetic canons. In this paper we analyze some of these dramatic proposals and their meanings that have emerged in the first half of the twentieth century, as scenic areas of discussion of modernity.
Key Words: Theater – Central America- Authoritarianism – Modernity – Vanguard.
Abstract: Literary labels and distorted canons. Latin American literature in Italy between stereotypes and misguided views. The aim of this study is to analyse some peritexts that have been used in the editorial and cultural sphere to describe Latin American books and presenting them to the Italian public. At the same time, we will analyse the interpretative mechanisms that the Italian intellectuals reserved to the works of “realismo magico”, to observe the different dynamics of interpretation that the term (in use in Italy via the work of Massimo Bontempelli) triggered at the moment of interpreting and reading the literary production of an entire subcontinent.
Key words: Centro American Literature – Reception theory – Translation – Literature – Market.
Abstract: Notes for a re-reading of Mario Monteforte Toledo’s novels. The aim of this article is to highlight the pioneering aspects of the novels by the Guatemalan author Mario Monteforte Toledo. In order to do that, it takes some distance from the critical tradition that has read his works from the perspective of regionalism or of social realism, and suggests to study them as ‘intellectual fictions’. Indeed, Monteforte’s novels put into question the optimism typical with the forties and fifties of last century, when in Latin America and thus, in Guatemala, civilizing projects were unquestionable. Monteforte works show a critical and sceptic attitude towards some of the totems of modern culture (bourgeois revolution, mingling of different races, progress, blind faith in Marxist), and this skepticism anticipates contemporary thinking. Moreover, the narrative of Monteforte Toledo portrays the return from enlightened collectivism to the individual, and this is interesting because it anticipates a problem that will be taken up, several decades later, by Central American postwar novelists.
Key Words: Mario Monteforte Toledo – Intellectual – Modernity – Critics – Individual.
Abstract: The Franco-Central Americans and the First World War. Notes on Central American presence on the European conflict. The main objective of this article is to analyze the engagement of the Franco-Central Americans after the general calling made by the French Government on August 2nd, 1914 following France’s declaration of war. This calling was widely broadcasted by the Central American press, however, our interest lies in the registers kept by the Consulate General of France in Central America, which reveal to us the alternatives that those children and grand-children of French expatriates, despite their frequent ignorance of their elders’ language or land, had: either enlist straight away or be declared ‘disobedient’ – a very serious offence in wartime. In this year of celebration of the First World War centenary, we intend to study the Central American presence in Europe, not only its heroes, but also all those who did not want to turn themselves in to the slaughter of the trenches.
Keywords: First World War – Central America – Disobedience – French army – Franco- Central Americans – French immigration.
Astract: Localism and Cosmopolitanism in the Film «Distancia» by Sergio Ramirez. The film “Distancia” (2010) by Guatemalan director Sergio Ramirez is based on real facts occurred in recent years. During the 80’s, in Guatemala a genocide was perpetrated against the indigenous population. This caused the death of 200,000 people, the leak to Mexico of more than 50,000 Mayan and a little-known phenomenon: the exodus to the mountains of one million people, wich received the name of CPR (Communities of Population in Resistance). The film tells a story derived from such escape. The article analyzes the film, an through that analysis tries to show how geographic distance became a symbolic distance, metaphor of distance between the different ethnic groups of Guatemala.
Key Words: Guatemala – “Distancia” – Sergio Ramirez – Genocidio – CPR – Symbolic distance.
Abstract: Translation Choices between Rhythm and Functionality. Italian Translation of «Men ofMaize» by M.À. Asturias. From a critical perspective of ‘Translation Studies’, this work discusses some aspects of the Italian translation of the novel Men of Maize by Miguel Angel Asturias in order to reconstruct strategies and decisions taken in the process of translation, assuming that the activity of translation is a functional interpretation of the different linguistic and cultural elements present in the source text through which it is possible reaching a global representation of literary creation.
Key words: Miguel Angel Asturias – Translation Studies – Uomini di mais – Literary Translation – Hombres de maiz.
Astract: Female Iconography in Art and Cinema and its Appropriation in the Work of Luis de Lión. The article analyzes two texts of the Guatemalan writer Luis de Lion considering the configuration of the female archetypes present in these texts as well as their links with European traditions and cultural discourses, as they appear in two key works of the twentieth century cinematography. The cultural conflict alluded by the texts of Luis de Lion can be read, at the same time, as an innovative proposal and a transgressive representation of the Guatemalan historical conflict that takes into account not only public space and history, but also private space, one where ladinización has left a violated emotional architecture.
Key Words: Luis de Lión – Femininity – Masculinity – Image – Cultural conflict – Violence
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