Abstract: Culture(s) in the Costa Rican Caribbean. Between ”creolization” and “folklorization”. The Afro-Costa Rican culture in Costa Rica has multiple faces due to the contact between several different cultures and languages: the indigenous cultures and their languages, Costa Rican culture and Spanish, Chinese culture and Chinese, and last but not least, Afro-Caribbean culture and creole English. This article will deal with the hybridization undergone by the Afro-Caribbean culture, which suffered a process of “folklorization”, and the Spanish speaking Costa Rican culture. The analysis of said hybridization will be inspired by the concept of “creolization” coined by Édouard Glissant. Furthermore, this article will dismiss the mere addition of cultures so as to propose an analytic model based in the mutual influence applicable to cultures and languages in contact.
Key words: Caribbean Culture – Costa Rica – Minority Group – Creolization – Folklorization.
Abstract: The descent to the underworld in Mayan world. The cases of the Popol Vuh, Men of Maize and shamanic rituals in Petén Forest.The descent of a hero to the underworld is a universal and mythical topic, which in the case of Mayan culture must be understood from the complementary perspectives of astronomy, archaeological findings and literary study of the myths. For purposes of the making-up of this work, the presence of this myth in Mayan world will be approached from the foci of disciplines that are seen as separate. First, it will be highlighted the most significant moments that Popol Vuh includes from the trip of two pairs of twins to the underworld. Then, it will be done a brief summary of the features that presents the movement of the planet Venus, to explain the relationship that, according to Dennis Tedlock, it maintains with the descent of the twins to Xibalbá. It will be also studied how Miguel Ángel Asturias develops the topic in his novel Men of Maize (1949). Finally, it will be done a comment on the importance and effect that this myth has among indigenous communities with Mayan origin, as a living reality that is part of their beliefs.
Key words: Descent to the underworld – Myth – Mayan culture – Cycle of Venus – Guatemalan novel.
Abstract: From anger to disgust. Reflections on the intellectual-writer en Central America “after the bombs” and its impact on literature. The role played by the intellectual in Central America has been experiencing significant changes, particularly since the end of the armed conflicts and the signing of the peace treaties in different countries of the isthmus. At the same time and especially since the nineties the literary field in Central America, in general, has been undergoing profound transformations with regard to the function of literature as an instance of creation of meaning and as an organizing institution in the cultural field. That period not only coincides with the end of the armed conflicts and the transition towards more civil and democratic forms of government, but also with the fundamental changes on the global level (the end of the Soviet Union with all its consequences) and the technological and commercial/economic repercussions of the current phase of accelerated globalization in the region. With the end of the armed conflicts and even more due to the impact of those changes in the cultural field itself –particularly the technological revolution – the Central American intellectual-writer has lost its hegemonic position in the cultural and political discourses. Which role will he play for the future of the Central American societies that currently are going through multiple processes of social, political and cultural change? The present essay presents some preliminary reflections on these topics in relation with that figure so dominant in the Central American literatures, based on a reading of contemporary Central American narrative, especially novels, and focussed in the literary representation of the intellectual.
Keywords: Intellectual – Literature – Central America – Armed Conflict – New Technologies.
Abstract: Writing the impossible. The archive as a reconstruction of a social class in «Tiempo de fulgor» by Sergio Ramírez. The present article is a brief analysis of the construction of an archive in the novel Tiempo de fulgor by Sergio Ramírez. This archive determines the identity of a social class that is struggling to reconstruct itself in a time of decadence. In order to understand the development of this archive and its significance, the article will begin with the identification of the archivists among the personalities of the novel. Furthermore, it will discuss the contextual references of these archivists and their project as a symbol of power – the powerful families and their family archives. Also, it will discuss the construction of the archive by a fossilized narrator and it will finally identify the opportunities which are presented by this failed archive within the context of the pre-Sandinista Nicaragua.
Key words: Pre-Sandinista Nicaragua – Family archive – Social decadence – Identity
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